THE PRINCIPLES OF SOCIALIST-REALISM
The Great October Revolution and changes that followed it activated all types of Russian avantgarde artists. They declared their participation in creating and consolidating the new reality. The artist, as well as the peasant and the worker, was to have become a builder of the new system .Avantgarde art was meant to reflect radical social and political changes, to influence the development of aesthetical preferences of the society. However, the followers of traditional artistic activity strongly rejected avantgarde art as obscure and unacceptable for the masses. Being too experimental it could not get through to an average consumer. A return to realism was suggested, depicting all the issues connected with creating a new system in the most literal and realistic way. This was socialist content . The concept of national form on the contrary implied an individualized way of expressing socialist contents for every particular nation. It also meant finding the style characteristic for the tradition of a particular country in order to use it as a carrier of new ideas. In 1934 socialist realism became the official and only correct trend in the art of the USSR.
The doctrine of socialist realism in Poland, as in other countries of the so-called People's Democracies, was in force from 1949 to 1956. It involved all the domains of art but its most spectacular achievements were made in the field of architecture. The main lines of the new trend were precisely indicated in a resolution of National Council of Party Architects in 1949. Architecture was a very important weapon in the hands of the creators of a new social order. It was meant to help to form the socialist theme, the ideas creating citizens' consciousness and outlook on life. In this great work a crucial role fell to an architect who - "is not merely an engineer creating edifices and streets but an engineer of human souls". The general outlook of a building was more important than its simple aesthetical meaning. It had to express social ideas, arouse the feeling of the "power and persistence of the people's state, its mass collective character, its democracy and humanism, the idea of true freedom and the versatile possibilities it gives to people".
The Renaissance style was regarded as the style most characteristic of Polish architecture and it was this that was to become Poland`s national form. However, in the course of incorporating the principles of socialist realism there were many deviations, to reflect Soviet architecture more, which resulted in the mutual resemblance of the majority of works and thus the general acceptance of the classicist form. From 1953 critical opinions were increasingly frequently heard and the doctrine was definitely given up in 1956.